Info The Transparency Profile is the recommended method of configuring transparency on the SBC Core for new deployments as well as when applying additional transparency configurations to existing deployments. Do not use IPSP flags in these scenarios because the flags will be retired in upcoming releases. Refer to the SBC SIP Transparency Implementation Guide for additional information.
The Transparency Profile is the recommended method of configuring transparency on the SBC Core for new deployments as well as when applying additional transparency configurations to existing deployments. Do not use IPSP flags in these scenarios because the flags will be retired in upcoming releases.
Refer to the SBC SIP Transparency Implementation Guide for additional information.
ENUM Dip Indicator
Telephone Number Mapping (ENUM) transforms the telephone number into a universal identifier recognized across different devices and applications (voice, fax, mobile, e-mail, text messaging, location-based services and the Internet). ENUM can also be used to implement a variety of services like number portability, call forwarding etc. It uses a DNS NAPTR record to translate a telephone number into a Uniform Resource Identifier or IP address that can be used in Internet communications.
Since a call may span multiple network elements, to avoid redundant ENUM queries, the
enumdi parameter received on ingress INVITE. Similarly, if ERE/PSX performs an ENUM dip, the
The Feature Control Profile flag to enable processing of the
enumdi parameter is
processEnumdi. For example,
If R-URI transparency flag (
requestURI) is enabled, the SBC does not send
enumdi indicator in egress signaling even if an ENUM dip is performed by ERE/PSX.
ENUM NAPTR Queries
The result of a successful ENUM NAPTR query is a SIP URI telephone number received in the Request-URI resolved to a SIP URI. To perform an ENUM NAPTR query, the
By default, the
For example, an ENUM query to an external DNS for the ENUM NAPTR record for the SIP URI sip:+email@example.com is sent using the format 220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168.1.2.1.e164.arpa. The
- If the DNS cannot match a SIP URI telephone number with a SIP URI in the database, the DNS returns no record for that telephone number. The Unable to show "metadata-from": No such page "_space_variables"then attempts to route the call through standard routing.
- If the ENUM NAPTR query succeeds, but a trigger for performing a DNS query has not been provisioned on the Unable to show "metadata-from": No such page "_space_variables", theUnable to show "metadata-from": No such page "_space_variables"uses the FQDN from the returned ENUM NAPTR record to attempt to perform Username routing.
In a NAPTR response to ENUM query, any one of the following strings are recognized as indicating that a SIP address-of-record appears in the URI field:
In the following example, five records were received; the record with the rrk2 address is used because it has the highest order (100) and highest preference (10).
Provisioned records for (44) 1793601415:
22.214.171.124.0.6.3.9.126.96.36.199.e164.arpa. IN NAPTR 300 10 "u" "E2U+sip" "!^.*$!sip:firstname.lastname@example.org!"
188.8.131.52.0.6.3.9.184.108.40.206.e164.arpa. IN NAPTR 100 10 "u" "E2U+sip" "!^.*$!sip:email@example.com!"
220.127.116.11.0.6.3.9.18.104.22.168.e164.arpa. IN NAPTR 200 10 "u" "E2U+sip" "!^.*$!sip:firstname.lastname@example.org!"
22.214.171.124.0.6.3.9.126.96.36.199.e164.arpa. IN NAPTR 100 20 "u" "E2U+sip" "!^.*$!sip:email@example.com!"
188.8.131.52.0.6.3.9.184.108.40.206.e164.arpa. IN NAPTR 400 10 "u" "E2U+sip" "!^.*$!sip:firstname.lastname@example.org!"
ENUM NAPTR Flags
The NAPTR Resource Record (RR) uses the following format:
Domain TTL Class Type Order Preference Flags Service Regexp Replacement
"Flags" is a <character-string> containing flags to control aspects of the rewriting and interpretation of the fields in the record. Flags are single characters from the set [A-Z0-9]. The case of the alphabetic characters is not significant.
At this time only four flags, "S", "A", "U", and "P", are defined.
The "S", "A" and "U" flags denote a terminal lookup. This means that this NAPTR record is the last one and that the flag determines what the next stage should be.
|S||The next lookup should be for SRV records.|
|A||The next lookup should be for either an A, AAAA, or A6 record.|
|U||The next step is not a DNS lookup but that the output of the Regexp field is an URI that adheres to the 'absoluteURI' production found in the ABNF of RFC 2396 . Since there may be applications that use NAPTR to also lookup aspects of URIs, implementors should be aware that this may cause loop conditions and should act accordingly.|
|P||The remainder of the application side algorithm shall be carried out in a Protocol-specific fashion. The new set of rules is identified by the Protocol specified in the Services field. The record that contains the 'P' flag is the last record that is interpreted by the rules specified in this document.|
For details refer to the IETF RFC at https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2915.
ENUM LNP enables number portability lookups in the IP network without the need to consult an external element in the SS7 network, thus simplifying call routing and networking operations.
The Routing Number must use one of the following formats:
- Globalized number: +1-555-614-8166 (specified in RFC4769)
- National Number: 555-614-8166
To provision ENUM LNP, enter ported numbers into the
When a Routing Request triggers an ENUM LNP lookup, the
ENUM CNAM enables calling name lookups on the IP network without having to consult an external element in the SS7 network, thus simplifying call routing and network operations.
To provision ENUM CNAM, specify the trigger criteria in the Number Translation Criteria entity and specify the ENUM CNAM as the lookup type. ENUM CNAM, provisioned through the DNS-ENUM Service Definition screen, uses the same triggering and escape criteria as SCP-based CNAM. When a Routing Request triggers an ENUM CNAM lookup, the
The ERE platform supports number translations based on the host part (contains a fully-qualified domain name) of the SIP headers. As the IP address format is not supported for host part lookup, it is recommended to use the fully-qualified domain name. The
The supported destination domain SIP headers are:
- INVITE Message,
- INVITE Message,
- 3XX Message,
toHeader element types are used to support call processing. Configure any of these element types to trigger number translations. The domain names configured in number translations are converted to upper case and stored in ERE as uppercase.
The following are configured based on service priority:
- ENUM SIP AoR
- ENUM CNAM
The ERE after executing the SIP AoR service, receives the domain name from the NAPTR RR SIP-URI and the system continues to trigger the next service ENUM CNAM in the priority list. In general, ERE uses the domain name received from SIP AoR service for routing. The ERE updates the
CalledUri with the information received from SIP AoR and then performs any other number translations as required.
To facilitate this service interaction ENUM SIP AoR service must be provisioned with a higher priority than ENUM CNAM service. ENUM CNAM service must be provisioned with element type as
priority is used to set the priority of this ENUM service. This parameter is used to prioritize the order of the ENUM service execution. Priority of the ENUM server hold the values in range (129..140). If not set, or set to "129", default priorities are assigned for LNP (130), CNAM (131), and SIP AoR (132), and these services are executed in that order. If a different order of service execution is required, the priorities are set accordingly. For example, setting CNAM priorty to 133, executes SIP AoR before CNAM.
Userinfo Parameters in ENUM Response
This behavior is controlled by enabling the IP Signaling Profile flag “includeEnumParameters”. The default value is "disable". When enabled, SBC either adds ENUM response parameters to the R-URI or overwrites egress INVITE R-URI parameter value with the ENUM response parameter value (egress INVITE parameters are determined based on the existing SBC process logic and transparency mechanism).
Load Balancing Support Across ENUM Servers
- Sequential—This is an existing load balancing type supported by the Unable to show "metadata-from": No such page "_space_variables". Whenever a new INVITE comes to theUnable to show "metadata-from": No such page "_space_variables"and if it matches with the ENUM trigger criteria, then theUnable to show "metadata-from": No such page "_space_variables"selects an ENUM server with highest priority (lowest forwardersData priority value) over other configured servers in the particular domain/zone and then triggers an ENUM query towards that server. In case, if the selected ENUM server does not respond to the ENUM query sent, then theUnable to show "metadata-from": No such page "_space_variables"selects the alternate ENUM server, which has second highest priority configured in the particular domain and triggers an ENUM query towards that server.
- Round Robin—Whenever a new INVITE comes to the Unable to show "metadata-from": No such page "_space_variables"and if it matches with the ENUM trigger criteria, then theUnable to show "metadata-from": No such page "_space_variables"selects the ENUM server based on the configured round robin type. For example, when three Server IPs are configured in a particular order, the client uses the first IP address in the list for the first call, and second IP address in the list for the second call and so on. In case of failure, the client fall back to the next IP address in the list.
- Proportional—The ENUM client routes the requests to the ENUM servers based on the proportion (percentage of distribution) configured against each server (IP) for a zone.
The enumDomain parameter is deprecated in the
forwarderIPs must be configured with same
loadDistribution type and